colorado pot flagAs states plod blindly forward, attempting to make marijuana legal, not only does it remain illegal, but the American Psychiatric Association makes several critical points regarding this dangerous issue.

  1. First, they warn of potential liabilities to doctors recommending use of marijuana – ‘Physicians who recommend smoked use of marijuana for medical purposes, should be fully aware of the risks and liabilities of doing so.’
  2. There is no current scientific evidence that marijuana is in any way beneficial for the treatment of any psychiatric disorder.
  3. Also, in contrast to initiative claims that there is a beneficial aspect to using marijuana, current evidence supports, at a minimum, a strong association of cannabis use with the onset of psychiatric disorders.  And that noting their neurological development, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to harm.
  4. They state that ‘should marijuana be found to have medicinal qualities, it should be evidence-based, determined by professional standards of care, and it should be a) subject to the approval process of the FDA and b) not be authorized by ballot initiatives.
  5. They also recommend research on the use of cannabis but note that should include the potential likelihood of addiction.

Following, are substantiating footnotes:

1. Food and Drug Administration. “FDA Statement: Inter-agency advisory regarding claims thatsmoked marijuana is medicine.” Revised April 2006.
2. Duran M, Perez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farre M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capella D. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010 Nov;70(5): 656-63.
3. Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Fotlin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Aug 15;45(5): 545-54.
4. Lakhan SE, Rowland M. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC Neurol 2009 Dec 4;9:59.
5. Martin-Sanchez E, Furukawa TA, Taylor J, Martin JL. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain. Pain Med 2009 Nov;10(8): 1353-68
6. Richards BL, Whittle SL, Buchbinder R, Neuromodulators for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1.
7. Semple DM, McIntosh AM, Lawrie SM. Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: a systematic review. J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Mar; 19(2):187-94.
8. Moore TH, et al. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet. 2007 Jul 28;370(9584):319-28.
9. Large M, Sharama S, Comptom MT, Slade T, Nielssen O. Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: a systematic meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jun;68(6): 555-61.
10. van Laar M, van Dorsselaer S, Monshouwer K, de Graaf R. Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population? Addiction. 2007 Aug;102(8): 1251-60
11. Degenhardt L, Coffey C, Romaniuk H, Swift W, Carlin JB, Hall WD, Patton GC.. The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction. 2013 Jan;108(1):124-33..
12. Duffy A, Horrocks L, Milin R, Doucette S, Persson G, Grof P. Adolescent substance us disorder during the early stages of bipolar disorder: a prospective high-risk study. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 15;142(1-3):57-64.
13. Lynskey M, Glowinski A, Todorov A, Bucholz K, Madden P, Nelson E, Statham D, Martin N, Heath A, Phil D. Major depressive disorder, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt in twins discordant for cannabis dependence and early-onset cannabis use. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;61(10): 1026-32.
14. Kahn RS, Linszen DH, van Os J, Wiersma D, Bruggerman R, Cahn W, de Haan L, Krabbendam L, Myin-Germeys O. Evidence that familial liability for psychosis is expressed as differential sensitivity to cannabis: An analysis of patient-sibling and sibling-control pairs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Feb; 68(2): 138-147.
15. Di Forti M, Morgan C, Dazzan P, Pariante C, Mondelli V, Reis Marques T, Handley R, Luzi S, Russo M, Paparelli A, Butt A, Stilo SA, Wiffen B, Powell J, Murray RM. High-potency cannabis and the risk of psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;195(6):488-491.
16. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Executive Office of the President. Teen marijuana use worsens depression: An analysis of recent data shows “self-medicating” could actually make things worse. 2008.
17. Degenhardt L, Coffey C, Romaniuk K, Swift W, Carlkin JB, Hall WD, Patton GH. The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction. 2013 Jan;108(1):124-33. Item 2013A2 4.B Assembly November 8-10, 2013 Attachment #1
18. McGrath J, Welham J, Scott J, Varghese D, Degenhardt L, Hayatbakhsh MR, Alati R, Williams GM, Bor W, Najman JM. Association between cannabis use and psychosis-related outcomes using sibling pair analysis in a cohort of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 67(5):440-447.
19. Dragt S, Nieman DH, Becker HE, van de Fliert R, Dingemans PM, de Hann L, van Amelsvoort TA, Linszen DH. Age of onset of cannabis use is associated with age of onset of high-risk symptoms for psychosis. Canadian J of Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;55(3):165-171.
20. Schimmelmann BG, Conus P, Cotton S, Kupferschmid S, McGorry PD, Lambert M. Prevalence and impact of cannabis use disorders in adolescents with early onset first episode psychosis. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;27(6):463-9..
21. Kleber, H.D., DuPont, R.L. Physicians and Medical Marijuana: Commentary. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 June;169(6): 564-568.
22. Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, Harrington H, Houts R, Keefe RS, McDonald K, Ward A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 2012 Oct 2;109(40):E2657-64.
23. Pope HG Jr, Gruber AJ, Hudson JI, Cohane G, Huestis MA, Yurgelun-Todd D. Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003 Apr 1;69(3):303-10.
24. Sheinsburg AD, Brown SA, Tapert SF. The influence of marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning in adolescents. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008 Jan;1(1):99-111.
25. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Beautrais AL. Cannabis and educational achievement. Addiction. 2003 Dec;98(12):1681-92.
26. Sewell RA, Poling J, Sofuoglu M. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving. Am J Addict. 2009 May-Jun;18(3):185-93.
27. Ramaekers JG, Berghhaus G, van Laar M, Drummer OH. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004 Feb 7;73(2):109-19.
28. National Institute on Drug Abuse. “Drug Facts: Marijuana.” Revised December 2012.
29. Milin R, Walker S, Duffy A. Assessment and treatment of comorbid psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder. Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc, 2011. Print.
30. Foti DJ, Kotov R, GueyLT, Bromet EJ. Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;167(8): 987-993.
31. Henquet C, van Os J, Kuepper R, Delespaul P, Smits M, à Campo J, Myin-Germeys I. Psychosis reactivity to cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study. Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;196(6): 447-453.
32. Levy E, Pawliuk N, Joober R, Abadi S, Malla A. Medication-adherent first-episode psychosis patients also relapse: Why? Canadian J Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;57(2): 78-84.
33. Croxford JL. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease. CNS Drugs. 2003; 17(3); 179-202.
34. Hall W, Lynskey M. The challenges in developing a rational cannabis policy. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009 May;22(3):258-6

About josiahe

Watching closely, working to understand all I may, in this "Age of Information", even from my limited view, I can see much of what's going on ..... and I oft see it's going to impact all of us which is why I share it. My focus is to expose evil, and to serve my Lord and savior Jesus in whatever way He shows me. If one waits long enough, better writers will come along and comment; it's just that I have so little patience with the evil that lurks among us and I've wasted so much time and now, there is so little left! WELCOME!
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